# Example: linked listΒΆ

```
module LinkedList4
open LowStar.BufferOps
module B = LowStar.Buffer
module HS = FStar.HyperStack
module G = FStar.Ghost
module L = FStar.List.Tot
module U32 = FStar.UInt32
module MO = LowStar.Modifies
open FStar.HyperStack.ST
#set-options "--__no_positivity"
```

We revisit the classic example of lists, but in a low-level setting, using linked lists. This second version uses B.pointer_or_null, the type of buffers of length 1 or 0.

```
noeq
type t (a: Type0) =
B.pointer_or_null (cell a)
and cell (a: Type0) = {
next: t a;
data: a;
}
```

We enrich lists with a predicate that captures their length. This predicate will be needed for any traversal of the list, in order to show termination. This predicate also encodes the fact that all cells of the list are live at the same time. The absence of cycles does not suffice to guarantee termination, as the number of buffers in the heap is potentially infinite;

```
let rec well_formed #a (h: HS.mem) (c: t a) (l: G.erased (list a))
: GTot Type0 (decreases (G.reveal l))
= B.live h c /\ (
match G.reveal l with
| [] ->
B.g_is_null c
| a :: q ->
B.length c == 1 /\ (
let { data=data; next=next } = B.get h c 0 in
a == data /\
well_formed h next (G.hide q)
))
```

Note: all the ghost predicates and functions operate on a length of type nat; the Ghost effect guarantees that the length can only be used at run-time. Functions called at run-time will, conversely, use a length of type erased nat, which states that the length is computationally-irrelevant and can be safely removed from the resulting C code via a combination of F* + KaRaMeL erasure.

```
let rec length_functional #a (h: HS.mem) (c: t a) (l1 l2: G.erased (list a)):
Lemma
(requires (well_formed h c l1 /\ well_formed h c l2))
(ensures (l1 == l2))
(decreases (G.reveal l1))
[ SMTPat (well_formed h c l1); SMTPat (well_formed h c l2) ] =
if B.g_is_null c
then ()
else
let { next=next } = B.get h c 0 in
length_functional h next (G.hide (L.tl (G.reveal l1))) (G.hide (L.tl (G.reveal l2)))
```

As we start proving some degree of functional correctness, we will have to reason about non-interference, and state that some operations do not modify the footprint of a given list.

```
#set-options "--max_ifuel 1 --max_fuel 2"
val footprint: (#a: Type) -> (h: HS.mem) -> (l: t a) -> (n: G.erased (list a)) -> Ghost MO.loc
(requires (well_formed h l n))
(ensures (fun refs -> True))
(decreases (G.reveal n))
let rec footprint #a h l n =
if B.g_is_null l
then MO.loc_none
else
let {next = next} = B.get h l 0 in
let refs = footprint h next (G.hide (L.tl (G.reveal n))) in
MO.loc_union (MO.loc_buffer l) refs
#reset-options
let rec modifies_disjoint_footprint
(#a: Type)
(h: HS.mem)
(l: t a)
(n: G.erased (list a))
(r: MO.loc)
(h' : HS.mem)
: Lemma
(requires (
well_formed h l n /\
MO.loc_disjoint r (footprint h l n) /\
MO.modifies r h h'
))
(ensures (
well_formed h' l n /\
footprint h' l n == footprint h l n
))
(decreases (G.reveal n))
= if B.g_is_null l
then ()
else begin
let {next = l'} = B.get h l 0 in
modifies_disjoint_footprint h l' (G.hide (L.tl (G.reveal n))) r h'
end
let rec well_formed_distinct_lengths_disjoint
#a
(c1: B.pointer (cell a))
(c2: B.pointer (cell a))
(n1: G.erased (list a))
(n2: G.erased (list a))
(h: HS.mem)
: Lemma
(requires (
well_formed h c1 n1 /\
well_formed h c2 n2 /\
L.length (G.reveal n1) <> L.length (G.reveal n2)
))
(ensures (
B.disjoint c1 c2
))
(decreases (L.length (G.reveal n1) + L.length (G.reveal n2)))
= let {next = next1} = B.get h c1 0 in
let {next = next2} = B.get h c2 0 in
let f () : Lemma (next1 =!= next2) =
if B.g_is_null next1 || B.g_is_null next2
then ()
else
well_formed_distinct_lengths_disjoint next1 next2 (G.hide (L.tl (G.reveal n1))) (G.hide (L.tl (G.reveal n2))) h
in
f ();
B.pointer_distinct_sel_disjoint c1 c2 h
let rec well_formed_gt_lengths_disjoint_from_list
#a
(h: HS.mem)
(c1: B.pointer_or_null (cell a))
(c2: B.pointer_or_null (cell a))
(n1: G.erased (list a))
(n2: G.erased (list a))
: Lemma
(requires (well_formed h c1 n1 /\ well_formed h c2 n2 /\ L.length (G.reveal n1) > L.length (G.reveal n2)))
(ensures (MO.loc_disjoint (MO.loc_buffer c1) (footprint h c2 n2)))
(decreases (G.reveal n2))
= match G.reveal n2 with
| [] -> ()
| _ ->
well_formed_distinct_lengths_disjoint c1 c2 n1 n2 h;
well_formed_gt_lengths_disjoint_from_list h c1 (B.get h c2 0).next n1 (G.hide (L.tl (G.reveal n2)))
let well_formed_head_tail_disjoint
(#a: Type)
(h: HS.mem)
(c: B.pointer (cell a))
(n: G.erased (list a))
: Lemma
(requires (well_formed h c n))
(ensures (
MO.loc_disjoint (MO.loc_buffer c) (footprint h (B.get h c 0).next (G.hide (L.tl (G.reveal n))))
))
= well_formed_gt_lengths_disjoint_from_list h c (B.get h c 0).next n (G.hide (L.tl (G.reveal n)))
let rec unused_in_well_formed_disjoint_from_list
#a #b
(h: HS.mem)
(r: B.buffer a)
(l: B.pointer_or_null (cell b))
(n: G.erased (list b))
: Lemma
(requires (r `B.unused_in` h /\ well_formed h l n))
(ensures (MO.loc_disjoint (MO.loc_buffer r) (footprint h l n)))
(decreases (G.reveal n))
= match G.reveal n with
| [] -> ()
| _ -> unused_in_well_formed_disjoint_from_list h r (B.get h l 0).next (G.hide (L.tl (G.reveal n)))
```

Finally, the pop operation. Here we use the classic representation using null pointers, which requires the client to pass a pointer to a pointer, which is then filled with the address of the next cell, or null if this was the last element in the list.

The code is straightforward and crucially relies on the call to the lemma above. Note that at this stage we do not prove full functional correctness of our implementation. Rather, we just state that the lengths is as expected.

This version uses an erased integer n; we have to work a little bit to hide/reveal the computationally-irrelevant length.

```
val pop: (#a: Type) -> (#n: G.erased (list a)) -> (pl: B.pointer (t a)) ->
Stack a
(requires (fun h ->
let l = B.get h pl 0 in
B.live h pl /\
well_formed h l n /\
MO.loc_disjoint (MO.loc_buffer pl) (footprint h l n) /\
Cons? (G.reveal n)
))
(ensures (fun h0 v h1 ->
let l = B.get h1 pl 0 in
let n' = G.hide (L.tl (G.reveal n)) in
B.live h1 pl /\
MO.modifies (MO.loc_buffer pl) h0 h1 /\
well_formed h1 l n' /\
MO.loc_disjoint (MO.loc_buffer pl) (footprint h1 l n')
))
let pop #a #n pl =
let l = !* pl in
let lcell = !* l in
let h0 = get () in
pl *= lcell.next;
let h1 = get () in
well_formed_head_tail_disjoint h0 l n;
modifies_disjoint_footprint h0 l n (MO.loc_buffer pl) h1;
lcell.data
val push: (#a: Type) -> (#n: G.erased (list a)) -> (pl: B.pointer (t a)) -> (x: a) ->
ST unit
(requires (fun h ->
let l = B.get h pl 0 in
B.live h pl /\
well_formed h l n /\
MO.loc_disjoint (MO.loc_buffer pl) (footprint h l n)
))
(ensures (fun h0 _ h1 ->
let n' = G.hide (x :: G.reveal n) in
let l = B.get h1 pl 0 in
MO.modifies (MO.loc_buffer pl) h0 h1 /\
B.live h1 pl /\
well_formed h1 l n' /\
MO.loc_disjoint (MO.loc_buffer pl) (footprint h1 l n')
))
let push #a #n pl x =
let h0 = get () in
let l = !* pl in
let c = {
data = x;
next = l;
}
in
let pc: B.pointer (cell a) = B.malloc HS.root c 1ul in
unused_in_well_formed_disjoint_from_list h0 pc l n;
let h1 = get () in
modifies_disjoint_footprint h0 l n (MO.loc_buffer pc) h1;
pl *= pc;
let h2 = get () in
modifies_disjoint_footprint h1 l n (MO.loc_buffer pl) h2
```

Connecting our predicate well_formed to the regular length function. Note that this function takes a list whose length is unknown statically, because of the existential quantification.

```
val length (#a: Type) (gn: G.erased (list a)) (l: t a): Stack UInt32.t
(requires (fun h -> well_formed h l gn))
(ensures (fun h0 n h1 ->
h0 == h1 /\
U32.v n = L.length (G.reveal gn)
))
```

Note that we could have as easily returned an option, but sometimes fatal errors are just easier to handle for client code. The C.String module provides facilities for dealing with constant C string literals. It reveals that they are zero-terminated and allows looping over them if one wants to, say, copy an immutable constant string into a mutable buffer.

```
let rec length #a gn l =
if B.is_null l
then 0ul
else
let open U32 in
let c = !* l in
let next = c.next in
let n = length (G.hide (L.tail (G.reveal gn))) next in
if n = 0xfffffffful then begin
C.String.(print !$"Integer overflow while computing length");
C.exit 255l;
0ul // dummy return value, this point is unreachable
end else
n +^ 1ul
val main: unit -> ST (Int32.t) (fun _ -> true) (fun _ _ _ -> true)
let main () =
let l: B.pointer_or_null (t Int32.t) = B.malloc HS.root B.null 1ul in
push #Int32.t #(G.hide []) l 1l;
push #Int32.t #(G.hide [1l]) l 0l;
let r = pop #Int32.t #(G.hide [0l; 1l]) l in
TestLib.checku32 (length (G.hide [1l]) !*l) 1ul;
r
```